Executive Function (EF) is a fundamental component of young minds, guiding their ability to plan, organize, and regulate emotions. As these skills are still developing in children, many often grapple with recognizing and articulating their EF-related challenges. It’s crucial for caregivers and educators to understand and assist in identifying these needs to support optimal growth and development.
In the first of our four-part series, we delve deep into the intricacies of Executive Function (EF) and its profound impact on children, especially those with ADD/ADHD.
What Is Executive Function And Why Is It Important?
Every parent wants their child to succeed academically and in life. However, some children face challenges that may not be immediately apparent.
- Does your child struggle to turn in completed assignments?
- Do they procrastinate when it’s time to study?
- Have you found yourself needing to sit beside them just to ensure they finish their homework?
- Is it difficult for them to adapt to last-minute changes in plans?
- Do they often forget things that you’d expect them to remember?
If you’ve nodded in agreement to any of these questions, you might be dealing with issues related to executive function. Understanding executive function and its significance can provide insights into these behaviors and offer guidance on how to support your child’s development.
Understanding Executive Function and Its Essential Components
Executive function is derived from the term executive skills which is referred to in neuroscience literature as the brain-based skills required to perform tasks. Executive function is the management system of our brain. These mental processes help us connect previous experience with present action. Each and every single one of us use executive function skills to perform activities that include planning, organizing, strategizing, paying attention to and remembering details and managing time and space. All of these skills are housed in the frontal lobe of our brain and develop gradually at different rates for different people.
The well-known and highly recommended book, “Smart but Scattered” breaks down executive function into the following skills:
- Response inhibition
- Working memory
- Emotional control
- Sustained attention
- Task initiation
- Time management
- Goal-directed persistence
These skills can be categorized based on how each of them function, either thinking or doing. Executive skills involving thinking (cognition) are: working memory, planning/prioritization, organization, time management, and metacognition. Executive skills involving doing (behavior) are: response inhibition, emotional control, sustained attention, task initiation, goal-directed persistence, and flexibility.
Another known resource, The National Center for Learning Disabilities, has developed five areas of executive functioning. These areas are: Organizing, Prioritizing, Shifting/Thinking Flexibility, Accessing Working Memory, and Self-Monitoring/Self-Checking. Today, more so than ever before, our childrens’ academic success is linked to a wide-range of skills that rely on executive function strategies.
These are two examples of the organization of executive function. Upon your own independent research, you will most definitely find other variations, as well. Regardless of the categories or organization of these processes, all resources will show that executive function is needed continuously throughout our day to execute whatever task at hand.
Are Executive Function Challenges The Same Thing As ADHD?
The quick answer is no. Executive function challenges and ADHD are not the same and cannot be used interchangeably for several reasons.
EF Challenges can exist without ADHD
If your child has a weakness in their executive functioning skills, does that mean they must have ADHD? The answer is no. It is important to understand that there are many reasons that problems with executive function can occur other than ADHD. Executive functioning weaknesses can occur alone or they can be a part of a broader challenge such as dyslexia, autism, ADHD, learning disability, etc. EF difficulties can be chronic or life-long, but they can also emerge when someone is experiencing temporary stress. If your child has a diagnosis of ADHD, does that mean they will have some kind of impairment in their EF skills? The answer is yes; however, the impact or the severity of the impaired skills can vary greatly from individual to individual.
EF Issues Cannot be Diagnosed; however, ADHD Can
A diagnosis is given by mental health professionals using the manual called the DSM-5-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Text Revision). ADHD is classified in the DSM-5-TR as a neurodevelopmental disorder. There are specific criteria that define this diagnosis. EF issues themselves are not considered a medical diagnosis recognized by any formal entity, including the DSM-5-TR. Executive function disorder or executive dysfunction should be understood as a way to communicate ER issues, rather than a diagnosis.
To summarize, EF issues are strongly connected to ADHD and they can occur together. However, they can be present on their own or coexisting with other disorders.
What Does A Student Struggling With Executive Function Look Like?
As we’ve journeyed through the intricate world of Executive Function, it’s evident that its influence extends far beyond the confines of clinical definitions. These foundational cognitive processes shape every facet of a child’s life, from their inner emotional world to their interactions with the environment. But how does this play out in the two most significant arenas of a child’s life: their home and school? In our next post, we will take a closer look at the practical implications of executive function (EF), examining how it influences both family dynamics and classroom environments. These insights will not only broaden your comprehension but also provide you with effective strategies to assist and nurture the young individuals under your guidance.